Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

Jean Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it be analyzed in a religious, as well as secular, frame of reference. The appropriateness of such an approach may seem self-evident for a tradition commencing with spirituals and owing its early forms, rhythms, vocabulary, and evangelical fervor to Wesleyan hymnals. But before Wagner a secular outlook that analyzed Black poetry solely within the context of political and social protest was dominant in the field.It is Wagner who first demonstrated the essential fusion of racial and religious feeling in Afro-American poetry. The two, he argued, form a symbiotic union in which religious feelings are often applied to racial issues and racial problems are often projected onto a metaphysical plane. Wagner found this most eloquently illustrated in the Black spiritual, where the desire for freedom in this world and the hope for salvation in the next are inextricably intertwined.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that, before Wagner, most students of Afro-American poetry did which of the following?

(A) Contributed appreciably to the transfer of political protest from Afro-American poetry to direct political action.
(B) Ignored at least some of the historical roots of Afro-American poetry.
(C) Analyzed fully the aspects of social protest to be found in such traditional forms of Afro-American poetry as the Black spiritual.
(D) Regarded as unimportant the development of fervent emotionalism in a portion of Afro-American poetry.

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