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Read the text and answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

Europe in the 12 century underwent enormous social, technological, and economic changes, but this did not create a new Europe—it created two new ones. The north was developed as a rigidly gradable society in which status was analysed, or was at least indicated, by the extent to which one owned, controlled, or labored on land; whereas the Mediterranean south developed a lot more fluid, and therefore more chaotic, world during which business and commerce predominated and status each reflected and resulted from the role that one played within the public lifetime of the community. In other words, individual identity and social community within the north were established on a private basis, whereas in the south they were established on a civic basis. By the beginning of the 12th century, northern and southern Europe were very different places indeed ,and the Europeans themselves noticed it and commented on it.

Q. which of the following was a deciding factor in person’s place in society in northern and southern Europe respectively at the end of the eleventh century?

(A) Ownership of a commercial enterprise.
(B) Participation in social and technological changes.
(C) Role in public life in the community.
(D) Relationship to land through ownership or labor.

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